Jute is a natural fiber popularly known as the golden fiber. It is one of the cheapest and the strongest of all natural fibers and considered as fiber of the future. Jute is second only to cotton in world''s production of textile fibers. India, Bangladesh, China and Thailand are the leading producers of Jute. It is also produced in southwest Asia and Brazil. The jute fiber is also known as Pat, kosta, Nalita, Bimli or Mesta (kenaf).
Kenaf known as Mesta or Ambari (species Hibiscus Cannabinus) is also considered as a variety of Jute. It is cultivated in Indian subcontinent, Thailand, China and Africa. The two main types of jute, white jute (Corchorus Capsularies) and dark jute or tossa (Corchorus Olitorius) are grown in India, Bangladesh, Thailand, China, south Asian countries and Brazil.
India is the largest producer of jute goods in the world. The cultivation of Jute in India is mainly confined to the eastern region states- West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Tripura, Meghalaya, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh. Nearly 50 percent of total raw jute production in India alone figures in West Bengal.
Jute, as a natural fibre, has many inherent advantages like lusture, high tensile strength, low extensibility, moderate heat and fire resistance and long staple lengths. It is a biodegradable and eco-friendly. It has much advantage over synthetics and protects the environment and maintains the ecological balance.
How Fibers are extracted from Jute Plant?
The Gangetic Plain in the Indian Subcontinent with alluvial soil and abundant monsoonal rainfall is the ideal location for growth of Jute, the Golden Fiber. Green Plant is dipped in ponds or rivers and retained there for about 2 weeks. This loosens the fiber from the pith and also removes the thin skin from its surface. Fiber is peeled out and cleaned by shaking in water. It is then dried in sun on poles and made into bundles. Fiber is graded according to quality, made into "morahs" and then baled for transportation.
Redeeming Features Of Jute:
- Bio-degradable jute deteriorates organically, replenishing the earth with productive invaluable nutrients.
- Environmentally friendly jute is non-pollutant. It produces no toxic gases or harmful gases as bye products.
- It beautifies the earth with vegetation, prevent further erosion and climatic change when used as soil saver.
- Jute is almost the perfect eco-system.
- Jute is preferred to other backing substitute materials (polypropylene, latex foam, polyurethane foam)
- The burning behavior of substitutes favors jute
- The relative toxicity levels of substitutes favors jute
- Jute packages have long durability
- Repeated usage of jute packaging reduces expenses, making recycling cost effective.
- Jute naturally protects perishable goods during storage, reducing product losses and prolonging storage life
- Jute is one of the most versatile natural fibers with renewable resource having applications in packaging, textiles and non-textile sectors
- Hydrocarbon Free Jute Bags are now being considered as the perfect medium for packing of Food grade items like Cocoa & Coffee Beans, shelled Nuts, etc
- Used as Geo-Textile in road construction, river bank protection, landslides control, canal lining, shallow land recovery, railway slope protection, etc
In which part of India Jute is Cultivated?
- The cultivation of Jute in India is mainly confined to the eastern region of the country. The jute crop is grown in nearly 83 districts of seven states - West Bengal, Assam, Orissa, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Tripura and Meghalaya. West Bengal alone accounts for over 50 percent raw jute production.